Born in 1875 at Surat, Educated at Karachi, Bombay and Columbia University, New York. Took the degree M. A. (Columbia University) 1906; Ph. D. in 1908. On the occasion of the celebration of 175th anniversary of King George III College of New York, which has developed into Columbia University, was awarded the Honorary degree of Litt. D. Ordained High Priest of Parsees at Karachi in September 1909. Organized Zoroastrian Conference at Bombay, 1910. He was a Fellow of the Bombay Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society. Created Shamsul-ulema in 1935. Author of “Zoroastrian Litannies”, Zoroastrian Theology, “Zoroastrian Civilization,” “Our Perfecting World”, “History of Zoroastrianism,” and “Homage unto Ahura Mazda” and several other works in Gujrati.